TOP > 外国特許検索 > Method, device and program for estimating particle emitted from radioisotope source, method for estimating radiation detector, method and device for calibrating radiation detector, and radioisotope source

Method, device and program for estimating particle emitted from radioisotope source, method for estimating radiation detector, method and device for calibrating radiation detector, and radioisotope source

外国特許コード F100002278
整理番号 335US
掲載日 2010年11月29日
出願国 アメリカ合衆国
出願番号 30988808
公報番号 20100274512
公報番号 8178839
出願日 平成20年10月22日(2008.10.22)
公報発行日 平成22年10月28日(2010.10.28)
公報発行日 平成24年5月15日(2012.5.15)
国際出願番号 JP2008069160
国際公開番号 WO2009133639
国際出願日 平成20年10月22日(2008.10.22)
国際公開日 平成21年11月5日(2009.11.5)
優先権データ
  • 2008JP058431 (2008.5.2) WO
  • 2008JP069160 (2008.10.22) WO
発明の名称 (英語) Method, device and program for estimating particle emitted from radioisotope source, method for estimating radiation detector, method and device for calibrating radiation detector, and radioisotope source
発明の概要(英語) When an energy of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source is obtained by a detector, a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference &Dgr;E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count is treated as being asymmetric, and an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source is obtained, thereby allowing an energy calibration of a radiation detector, absolute quantitation and resolution measurement to be performed with accuracy.
従来技術、競合技術の概要(英語) BACKGROUND ART
Generally, as exemplified in FIG. 1, a charged particle (helium nucleus or electron) 8 constituting alpha particles or beta particles and passing through a substance 6 loses its energy (DELTA E) in the substance 6 due to interaction with the substance 6.
The loss DELTA E is proportional to a type, a density and a thickness (t) of the substance.
On the other hand, the use of radioisotope sources has been increasing recently for calibration of radiation detectors and biological experiments, etc., in the fields of science, biology, chemistry, medical science and others.
Further, based on the results of these studies and experiments, comparisons of other radiation doses and energies are performed.
Thus, an energy, a dose or the like of a particle emitted from a radioisotope (hereinafter, simply referred to as an isotope) needs to be estimated accurately.
A radioisotope source (for example, 137Cs, 207Bi, 109Cd, 110mAg, 90Sr, etc.) emitting charged particles such as monoenergetic internal conversion electrons, beta particles, and the like is covered with a film in order to protect an isotope from external injury.
Further, a thin film has been used to reduce an energy deposit of the charged particles in the film.
Thus, a variety of studies and experiments have been conducted based on the assumption that the energy deposit in the thin film can be disregarded.
As an example of a thin film source 10, a 137Cs thin film source is shown in FIG. 2. 12 denotes an isotope composed of, for example, 137Cs and 14 denotes a thin film composed of, for example, aluminum in FIG. 2.
Conventionally, as shown in FIG. 3, measurements have been performed, for example, by a radiation detector 20 constituted by a scintillation detector (a detector composed of a scintillator and a photomultiplier device), a semiconductor detector, a gas detector, etc., regarding a hundred percent energy E as having been emitted from the source 10 without any loss.
However, results of a study by the present inventor have revealed that a charged particle 8 in fact lost an energy DELTA E in the source 10 before getting out of the source 10, in accordance with its occurrence location 13 and emission direction, as shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. 5.
Conventionally, various efforts such as adjusting a radiation rate of radiation from a radioisotope source as described in Japanese Published Unexamined Patent Application No. 2004-221082, alleviating an influence of source fluctuations as described in Japanese Published Unexamined Patent Application No. 2006-275664 and measuring a radiation dose of a measuring object with accuracy as described in Japanese Published Unexamined Patent Application No. 2007-263804 have been made.
However, an energy deposit within a radioisotope source has not received attention.
On the other hand, A. Martin Sanchez, et al., "An experimental study of symmetric and asymmetric peak-fitting parameters for alpha-particle spectrometry" Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 339 (1994) 127-130 (hereinafter, referred to as literature 1) states that attention is given to an energy deposit within a radioisotope source.
However, in a frequency distribution chart of energy intensity and frequency of counts of a particle group emitted from a radioisotope source (hereinafter, referred to as an energy distribution where its x-axis indicates energy intensity and its y-axis, frequency of counts) as shown in FIG. 6, a distribution (L1) based on an energy deposit of the particle within the radioisotope source 10 and a statistical fluctuation (L2) of the detector 20 are both treated as being symmetrical.
As a result, an asymmetric energy spectrum (L3) obtained by an operation processing part 30 in actual measurement was not able to be expressed only by synthesizing the symmetric L1 and L2.
Thus, L3 was reproduced as an asymmetric energy spectrum by adding an exponential function to the synthesis of the energy spectra of L1 and L2.
However, there was no physical basis for the exponential function at all, and only an approximate estimation with the spectrum reproduced was conducted.
Accordingly, an accurate estimation was not achieved.
There are four serious mistakes in the method, including (1) the energy deposit of the particle within the radioisotope source is treated as being symmetric, (2) in spite of the fact that the particle loses its energy within the radioisotope source, an energy of the particle actually emitted outside the radioisotope source is treated as being equal to the initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation, (3) the exponential function having no physical basis is introduced only for forcibly expressing the asymmetry and (4) the performance of the radiation detector is not estimated with accuracy due to the introduction of the exponential function.
Further, in a conventional analytical method as in M. Miyajima, et al., "Numbers of scintillation photons produced in NaI (Tl) and plastic scintillator by gamma-rays.", Published in IEEE Trans.
Nucl. Sci. 40: 417-423, 1993 (hereinafter, referred to as literature 2) for example, an influence of the energy deposit within the radioisotope source was not estimated, and accordingly, energy calibration of the detector is incorrect.
It can be found from an energy spectrum of a 976 keV internal conversion electron emitted from a 207Bi radioisotope source, having been measured by a radiation detector (plastic scintillator) as shown in FIG. 5 of the aforementioned literature 2 that an energy distribution of the 976 keV internal conversion electron having been emitted from the 207Bi radioisotope source is treated as being symmetric.
As a result, the performance of the radiation detector was also estimated low.
Moreover, the internal conversion electron is treated as having only one level of energy without estimating internal conversion electrons having several different levels of energy (internal conversion electrons from K shell, L1 shell, L2 shell, L3 shell, M shell, etc.) in terms of excitation level of one nucleus.
Thus, it is understood that the performance of the radiation detector is estimated lower.
Further, separation of 'alpha particles' having several different levels of energy is performed based on a result obtained by measurement in C. John Bland et al., "An Observed Correlation between Alpha-Particle Peak-fitting Parameters", vol. 43, No. 1/2, pp. 223-227, 1992 (hereinafter, referred to as literature 3), G. Bortels et al., "ANALYTICAL FUNCTION FOR FITTING PEAKS IN ALPHA-PARTICLE SPECTRA FROM Si DETECTORS", Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 831-837, 1987 (hereinafter, referred to as literature 4) and C. John BLAND et al., "Deconvolution of Alpha-Particle Spectra to Obtain Plutonium Isotopic Ratios", Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 43, no. 1/2, pp. 201-209, 1992 (hereinafter, referred to as literature 5).
Separation is possible only because the measurement result of the alpha particles is matched with an approximate formula using the exponential function.
For beta particles or gamma rays, for example, a result obtained by measurement cannot be expressed by an exponential function, and accordingly separation between different particles is impossible.
From around 1970 until now, a great number of papers on and techniques about separating alpha particles as described above have been reported around the world.
However, there have been no reports of any document ever estimating a type of particle.
This is because they are not applicable to a particle other than alpha particles.
Further, although it is said that the separation of alpha particles having different levels of energy is possible, there is a disadvantage that errors are large and measurement accuracy is remarkably low since approximation having no physical basis is repeated relative to a plurality of alpha particles.

特許請求の範囲(英語) [claim1]
1. An estimation method of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, the method comprising: obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector;
estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source; and
calibrating the energy deposit that has been estimated.
[claim2]
2. The estimation method of the particle emitted from the radioisotope source according to claim 1, wherein the energy deposit in the radioisotope source is estimated by obtaining a travel distance of a particle in the radioisotope source from an occurrence location and an emission direction of the particle within the radioisotope source.
[claim3]
3. The estimation method of the particle emitted from the radioisotope source according to claim 2, wherein the travel distance includes a travel distance from the radioisotope source to an interaction part of a radiation detector.
[claim4]
4. The estimation method of the particle emitted from the radioisotope source according to claim 2, wherein the emission direction of the particle is set isotropically.
[claim5]
5. The estimation method of the particle emitted from the radioisotope source according to claim 1, wherein the particle is a charged particle.
[claim6]
6. The estimation method of the particle emitted from the radioisotope source according to claim 1, wherein the radioisotope source is a thin film radioisotope source (a radioisotope source emitting an internal conversion electron), a beta source or an alpha source.
[claim7]
7. A calibration method of a radiation detector, comprising using a radioisotope source where an energy of a particle is estimated by an estimation method according to claim 1.
[claim8]
8. A radioisotope source comprising being estimated by an estimation method according to claim 1.
[claim9]
9. An estimation method of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, the method comprising: obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector; and
estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source, wherein the energy deposit in the radioisotope source is estimated by obtaining a travel distance of a particle in the radioisotope source from an occurrence location and an emission direction of the particle within the radioisotope source, and
the energy deposit within the radioisotope source is obtained by using an energy distribution function F(Ei) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source, which is obtained by estimation, and a response function R(E) shown by the following formula;
(Equation image 6 not included in text)
where E is an energy of the particle, Ei is an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation, and sigma is a standard deviation and indicates a resolution of the detector.
[claim10]
10. An estimation method of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, the method comprising: obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector; and
estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source, wherein the energy deposit in the radioisotope source is estimated by obtaining a travel distance of a particle in the radioisotope source from an occurrence location and an emission direction of the particle within the radioisotope source, and
the energy deposit of the particle within the radioisotope source is obtained by obtaining a distribution function Fk(E) based on an energy deposit within the radioisotope source individually relative to a group of radiations (internal conversion electrons from each shell, beta particles, gamma rays, etc), and estimating an emission rate tau k of each radiation (where k is an index for identifying each radiation contained in the group of radiations and indicates the number of radiations).
[claim11]
11. An estimation method of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, the method comprising: obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector;
estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source; and
calibrating an energy spectrum measured by the radiation detector by the DELTA E; and
obtaining an associated calibrated energy spectrum (L3, L3') such that most probabilities are made in agreement.
[claim12]
12. An estimation method of a radiation detector according to claim 11, further comprising: obtaining an energy spectrum L1a in which a scale of counts of the energy distribution (L1) of the particle obtained is changed so as to be matched with the calibrated energy spectrum (L3, L3').
[claim13]
13. An estimation method of a radiation detector according to claim 12, further comprising obtaining a statistical fluctuation L2 of the radiation detector with use of the calibrated energy spectrum (L3, L3') and the energy spectrum L1a.
[claim14]
14. A computer readable medium storing a computer program for estimating a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, comprising: including a step of obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector;
estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source; and
calibrating the energy deposit that has been estimated.
[claim15]
15. The computer readable medium storing a computer program according to claim 14 for estimating and correcting an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source by writing or rewriting an estimation program on a memory part of an estimation device which includes a processing part for the estimation program and does not estimate an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source, the estimation program being rewritably written on the memory part and estimating the particle emitted from the radioisotope source based on a method of not estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source.
[claim16]
16. A calibration device of a radiation detector, comprising being installed with a computer program according to claim 14.
[claim17]
17. A computer readable medium storing a computer program for estimating a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, comprising: including a step of obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector;
estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source; and
correcting an estimation in a conventional estimation device which includes another memory part on which an estimation program for estimating the particle emitted from the radioisotope source based on a method of not estimating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source, is unrewritably written and a processing part for the estimation program and does not estimate an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source.
[claim18]
18. An estimation device of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, comprising: means for obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector;
means for estimating and calibrating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source; and
means for calibrating the energy deposit that has been estimated.
[claim19]
19. A calibration device of a radiation detector, comprising an estimation device according to claim 18.
[claim20]
20. An estimation device of a particle emitted from a radioisotope source, comprising: means for obtaining an energy distribution (L1) of the particle emitted outside the radioisotope source by treating a histogram obtained from a relationship between a difference DELTA E between an energy of a particle emitted outside the radioisotope source and an initial energy which the particle possesses at the time of generation and a count as being asymmetric when an energy of a particle emitted from the radioisotope source is obtained by a detector;
means for estimating and calibrating an energy deposited while the particle passes through inside the radioisotope source;
a conversion table for an energy deposit in accordance with a type and a shape of the radioisotope source; and
a calibration means for calibrating the estimated energy deposit.
  • 発明者/出願人(英語)
  • NAKAMURA HIDEHITO
  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF RADIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
国際特許分類(IPC)
米国特許分類/主・副
  • 250/308
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