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Spin-injection device and magnetic device using spin-injection device

外国特許コード F110005220
整理番号 A241-07US
掲載日 2011年8月26日
出願国 アメリカ合衆国
出願番号 53643703
公報番号 20060022220
公報番号 7755929
出願日 平成15年11月20日(2003.11.20)
公報発行日 平成18年2月2日(2006.2.2)
公報発行日 平成22年7月13日(2010.7.13)
国際出願番号 JP2003014830
国際公開番号 WO2004051754
国際出願日 平成15年11月20日(2003.11.20)
国際公開日 平成16年6月17日(2004.6.17)
優先権データ
  • 特願2002-349262 (2002.11.29) JP
  • 2003WO-JP14830 (2003.11.20) WO
発明の名称 (英語) Spin-injection device and magnetic device using spin-injection device
発明の概要(英語) (US7755929)
First and second tunnel junctions having a common electrode composed of a nonmagnetic conductor and each of which has a counterelectrode composed of a ferromagnet are spaced apart from each other by a distance that is shorter than a spin diffusion length of the nonmagnetic conductor.
The first tunnel junction injects spin from the ferromagnet into the nonmagnetic conductor and the second tunnel junction detects, between the ferromagnetic metal and the nonmagnetic conductor, a voltage that accompanies spin injection of the first tunnel junction.
The nonmagnetic conductor may be a semiconductor or semimetal that is lower in carrier density than a metal.
The common electrode alternatively may be composed of a superconductor.
A spin injection device thus provided can exhibit a large signal voltage with a low current and under low magnetic field and can be miniaturized in device size.
特許請求の範囲(英語) [claim1]
1. A spin injection device comprising a first tunnel junction and a second tunnel junction which have a common electrode composed of a nonmagnetic conductor and each of which has a counterelectrode composed of a ferromagnet, wherein: said first tunnel junction is a tunnel junction having an insulator interposed between said nonmagnetic conductor and said ferromagnet;
said second tunnel junction is a tunnel junction in which an insulator, a ferromagnet, a nonmagnetic metal and said ferromagnet are successively layered on said nonmagnetic conductor, the ferromagnets at opposite sides of said nonmagnetic metal being magnetically coupled together antiparallel to each other via said nonmagnetic metal;
said first and second tunnel junctions are disposed spaced apart from each other by a distance that is shorter than a spin diffusion length of said nonmagnetic conductor;
said first tunnel junction is a tunnel junction for spin injection therein from a current (I) flowing from said ferromagnetic metal in the first tunnel junction into said nonmagnetic conductor when a positive voltage is applied to said common electrode and a negative voltage is applied to said ferromagnet in the first tunnel junction and said first tunnel junction is a tunnel junction to flow spin current (Is) between said first tunnel junction and said second tunnel junction,
said second tunnel junction is a tunnel junction for detection between said ferromagnetic metal in said second tunnel junction and said nonmagnetic conductor therein of a voltage accompanying the spin injection of said first tunnel junction, and
said nonmagnetic conductor is a semiconductor, or a semimetal having lower carrier density than a nonmagnetic metal
wherein an output resistance defined by an equation below detected at said second tunnel junction of the spin injection device is at least 1.5OMEGA ,
Rs=(Vs)/Is
where Vs is a voltage difference of the detected voltage of said second tunnel junction with magnetization reversal of said ferromagnet of said first tunnel junction by an applied external magnetic field, and Is represents said spin current between said first tunnel junction and said second tunnel junction.
[claim2]
2. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 1, characterized in that said first tunnel junction is of a tunnel junction structure in which an insulator, a ferromagnet, a nonmagnetic metal and said ferromagnet are successively layered on said nonmagnetic conductor and that said ferromagnets at both sides of said nonmagnetic metal are magnetically coupled together antiparallel to each other via said nonmagnetic metal.
[claim3]
3. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 2, characterized in that said ferromagnets magnetically coupled together antiparallel to each other via said nonmagnetic metal are each in the form of a film whose aspect ratio is 1.
[claim4]
4. A spin injection device as set forth in any one of claims 1, 2 and 3, characterized in that the spin injection device is formed on a substrate.
[claim5]
5. A magnetic apparatus, characterized in that it has a spin injection device as set forth in any one of claims 1, 2 and 3.
[claim6]
6. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 1, characterized in that said common electrode is of impurity doped GaAs.
[claim7]
7. A spin injection device comprising: a first tunnel junction and a second tunnel junction which have a common electrode composed of a superconductor and each of which has a counterelectrode composed of a ferromagnet, wherein:
said first tunnel junction is a tunnel junction having an insulator interposed between said superconductor and said ferromagnet,
said second tunnel junction is a tunnel junction having an insulator interposed between said superconductor and said ferromagnet,
said first and second tunnel junctions are disposed spaced apart from each other by a distance that is shorter than a spin diffusion length of said superconductor;
said first tunnel junction is a tunnel junction for spin injection therein from a current (I) flowing from said ferromagnetic metal in said first tunnel junction into said superconductor when a positive voltage is applied to said common electrode and a negative voltage is applied to said ferromagnet in the first tunnel junction and said first tunnel junction is a tunnel junction to flow spin current (Is) between said first tunnel junction and said second tunnel junction,
said second tunnel junction is a tunnel junction for detection between said ferromagnetic metal in said second tunnel junction and said superconductor therein of a voltage accompanying the spin injection of said first tunnel junction, and
at least one of said first and second tunnel junctions is of a tunnel junction structure in which an insulator, a ferromagnet, a nonmagnetic metal and a ferromagnet are successively layered on said nonmagnetic conductor and that said ferromagnets at both sides of said nonmagnetic metal are magnetically coupled together antiparallel to each other via said nonmagnetic metal
wherein an output resistance defined by an equation below detected at said second tunnel junction of the spin injection device is at least about 20OMEGA ,
Rs=(Vs)/Is
where Vs is a voltage difference of the detected voltage of said second tunnel junction with magnetization reversal of said ferromagnet of said first tunnel junction by an applied external magnetic field, and Is represents said spin current between said first tunnel junction and said second tunnel junction.
[claim8]
8. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 7, characterized in that said first and second tunnel junctions are each a tunnel junction having an insulator interposed between said superconductor and said ferromagnet.
[claim9]
9. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 7, characterized in that said ferromagnets magnetically coupled together antiparallel to each other via said nonmagnetic metal are each in the form of a film in which aspect ratio is 1.
[claim10]
10. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 7, characterized in that in said second tunnel junction for voltage detection, the layer of said ferromagnet has an antiferromagnet disposed thereon for fixing spins of said ferromagnet.
[claim11]
11. A spin injection device as set forth in any one of claims 7, 8, 9 and 10, characterized in that said spin injection device is formed on a substrate.
[claim12]
12. A magnetic apparatus, characterized in that it has a spin injection device as set forth in any one of claims 7, 8, 9 and 10.
[claim13]
13. A spin injection device as set forth in claim 7, characterized in that said common electrode is of Nb.
  • 発明者/出願人(英語)
  • INOMATA KOUICHIRO
  • MAEKAWA SADAMICHI
  • TAKAHASHI SABURO
  • JAPAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AGENCY
国際特許分類(IPC)
米国特許分類/主・副
  • 365/158
  • 257/40
  • 257/295
  • 360/324
  • 360/324.12
  • 365/173
  • 428/811.2
  • 428/811.5
  • 428/816
参考情報 (研究プロジェクト等) CREST Creation of Nanodevices and System Based on New Physical Phenomena and Functional Principles AREA
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