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Transmission line microwave apparatus including at least one non-reciprocal transmission line part between two parts

外国特許コード F120007021
掲載日 2012年11月19日
出願国 アメリカ合衆国
出願番号 53010208
公報番号 20100060388
公報番号 8294538
出願日 平成20年3月5日(2008.3.5)
公報発行日 平成22年3月11日(2010.3.11)
公報発行日 平成24年10月23日(2012.10.23)
国際出願番号 JP2008053964
国際公開番号 WO2008111460
国際出願日 平成20年3月5日(2008.3.5)
国際公開日 平成20年9月18日(2008.9.18)
優先権データ
  • 特願2007-054445 (2007.3.5) JP
  • 2008JP053964 (2008.3.5) WO
発明の名称 (英語) Transmission line microwave apparatus including at least one non-reciprocal transmission line part between two parts
発明の概要(英語) A transmission line microwave apparatus includes at least one nonreciprocal transmission line part, which includes a series branch circuit equivalently including a capacitive element and a shunt branch circuit equivalently including an inductive element.
The nonreciprocal transmission line part has gyrotropic characteristic by being magnetized in a magnetization direction different from the propagation direction of a microwave, and has an asymmetric structure to a plane formed by the propagation direction and the magnetization direction.
The nonreciprocal transmission line part has a propagation constant and an operating frequency set in a dispersion curve that represents a relation between the propagation constant and the operating frequency so that the propagation constant in the forward direction and the propagation constant in the backward direction have nonreciprocal phase characteristics different from each other.
A microwave transmission line is constituted by cascade-connecting at least one non-reciprocal transmission line part between first and second ports.
従来技術、競合技術の概要(英語) BACKGROUND ART
Recently, researches on the left-handed transmission (Left Handed Transmission (LHT)) line in which the inductance and the capacitance of the conventional distributed constant transmission line are replaced with each other in arrangement are stepped up (See, for example, the Non-Patent Documents 1-3).
Since specificities such as backward wave characteristics and lens effects appear in circuits of the left-handed transmission lines, a novel microwave circuit devices are greatly expected.
Patent Document 1: Japanese patent laid-open publication No. JP 05-183329 A.
Patent Document 2: Japanese patent laid-open publication No. JP 2005-124038 A.
Patent Document 3: Japanese patent laid-open publication No. JP 2005-160009 A.
Non-Patent Document 1: Makoto Tsutsumi et al., "Nonreciprocal Left Handed Transmission Characteristics in Ferrite Microstrip Lines", The transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers C, Vol.J87-C, No.2, pp.274-275, February 2004.
Non-Patent Document 2: M. Tsutsumi et al., "Nonreciprocal Left-Handed Microstrip Lines using ferrite substrate", 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, TU5C-3, pp. 249-252, June 2004.
Non-Patent Document 3: Tetsuya Ueda, et al., "Left-Handed Transmission Characteristics of Ferrite Microstrip Lines without Series Capacitive Loading", IEICE Transactions on Electron, Vol.
E89-C, No. 9, pp. 1318-1323, September 2006.
Non-Patent Document 4: Atsushi Sanada et al., "Novel Zeroth-Order Resonance in Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line Resonators", Proceeding of 2003 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Soul Korea, pp. 1581-1591, Nov. 4-7, 2003.
Non-Patent Document 5: Atsushi Sanada et al., "A Planar Zeroth-Order Resonator Antenna Using a Left-Handed Transmission Line", Proceedings of 34th European Microwave Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 1341-1344, Oct. 11-15, 2004.
Non-Patent Document 6: Tetsuya Ueda, et al. "Left-Handed Transmission Characteristics of Rectangular Waveguides Periodically Loaded With Ferrite", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 3532-3537, October 2005.
Non-Patent Document 7: Shuang Zhang et al., "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials", Physical Review Letters, The American Physical Society, PRL-95, pp. 137404-1-13704-4, Sep. 23, 2005.
Non-Patent Document 8: Gunnar Dolling et al., "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths", Optics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 1800-1802, Jun. 15, 2006.
Non-Patent Document 9: D. R. Smith et al., "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity", Physical Review Letters, The American Physical Society, Vol. 84, No. 18, pp. 4184-4187, May 1, 2000.
Non-Patent Document 10: R Marques et al., "Left-Handed-Media Simulation and Transmission of EM Waves in Subwavelength Split-Ring-Resonator-Loaded Metallic Waveguides", Physical Review Letters, The American Physical Society, Vol. 89, No. 18, pp. 183901-1-183901-4, Oct. 28, 2002.
Non-Patent Document 11: Juan D. Baena et al., "Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators", Physical Review Letters, The American Physical Society, Vol.
B69, pp. 014402-1-014402-5, 2004.

特許請求の範囲(英語) [claim1]
1. A transmission line microwave apparatus including a microwave transmission line constituted by cascade-connecting at least one unit cell between first and second ports, wherein said unit cell includes a series branch circuit equivalently including a capacitive element, a shunt branch circuit equivalently including an inductive element, and at least one nonreciprocal transmission line part,
wherein the nonreciprocal transmission line part is made of a material that is magnetized by one of spontaneous method and magnetization method by an external magnetic field so as to have gyrotropic characteristic by being magnetized in a magnetization direction different from a propagation direction of a microwave, and the nonreciprocal transmission line part has an asymmetric structure with respect to a plane formed by the propagation direction and the magnetization direction, and
wherein each of said unit cells of the microwave transmission line has such a circuit configuration that the microwave transmission line has a predetermined propagation constant in a dispersion curve that represents a relation between an operating frequency of a microwave signal inputted to the microwave transmission line, and the propagation constant of the microwave transmission line so that a propagation constant in a forward direction and a propagation constant in a backward direction have mutually different nonreciprocal phase characteristics.
[claim2]
2. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of said unit cells of the microwave transmission line has such a circuit configuration that the microwave transmission line has a predetermined propagation constant in the dispersion curve, so that a power of the microwave signal is transmitted by left-handed transmission in a direction from the first port toward the second port, and the power of the microwave signal is transmitted by right-handed transmission in a direction from the second port to the first port in the microwave transmission line at the operating frequency.
[claim3]
3. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of said unit cells of the microwave transmission line has such a circuit configuration that the microwave transmission line has a predetermined propagation constant in the dispersion curve, so that a power of the microwave signal is transmitted by one of left-handed transmission and right-handed transmission in a direction from the first port toward the second port, and the power of the microwave signal is transmitted to have a zero propagation constant and an infinite guide wavelength in a direction from the second port to the first port in the microwave transmission line at the operating frequency.
[claim4]
4. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in claim 2, wherein the transmission line microwave apparatus further comprises a circuit for performing one of making both the first port and the second port open, and making both the first port and the second port short-circuited,
wherein each of said unit cells of the microwave transmission line has such a circuit configuration that the microwave transmission line has a predetermined propagation constant so that, when a propagation constant in a first mode of propagation of the microwave signal in the direction from the first port toward the second port is set to beta + and a propagation constant in a second mode of propagation of the microwave signal in a direction from the second port toward the first port is set to beta - in the microwave transmission line at the operating frequency, then beta +=-beta -Not= 0 is satisfied,
whereby the transmission line microwave apparatus is a microwave resonator.
[claim5]
5. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in claim 4, further comprising a power feeding transmission line provided to be coupled with the microwave resonator, thereby constituting a microwave antenna apparatus.
[claim6]
6. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in 1, further a controller for controlling an electromagnetic field distribution of the microwave signal on the microwave transmission line, wherein, when a microwave signal propagates in a propagation direction from the first port to the second port in the microwave transmission line at the operating frequency, said controller controls the electromagnetic field distribution of the microwave signal on the microwave transmission line so as to radiate a microwave signal of a radiation pattern that has at least one beam of the following:
(a) a beam of a forward leaky wave having a direction inclined from the propagation direction,
(b) a beam of a backward leaky wave having a direction inclined from a direction opposite to the propagation direction, and
(c) a beam of a leaky wave having a direction substantially perpendicular to the propagation direction,
wherein the transmission line microwave apparatus operates as a leaky wave antenna apparatus.
[claim7]
7. The transmission line microwave apparatus claimed in claim 6, wherein the controller controls at least one of an input electric power ratio of microwave signals inputted to the first port and the second port, and phases of each of the microwave signals.
[claim8]
8. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a microwave resonator; and a power feeding transmission line provided to be coupled with the microwave resonator, thereby constituting a microwave antenna apparatus.
[claim9]
9. The transmission line microwave apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further comprising: a circuit for performing one of making both the first port and the second port open, and making both the first port and the second port short-circuited;
a microwave resonator, wherein each of said unit cells of the microwave transmission line has such a circuit configuration that the microwave transmission line has a predetermined propagation constant so that, when a propagation constant in a first mode of propagation of the microwave signal in the direction from the first port toward the second port is set to beta + and a propagation constant in a second mode of propagation of the microwave signal in a direction from the second port toward the first port is set to beta - in the microwave transmission line at the operating frequency, then beta +=-beta -Not= 0 is satisfied; and
a power feeding transmission line provided to be coupled with the microwave resonator, thereby constituting a microwave antenna apparatus.
[claim10]
10. A transmission line antenna apparatus comprising: a substrate that is magnetized by one of spontaneously method and magnetization method by an external magnetic field and has a ground conductor on a back surface thereof;
a microstrip line formed on the substrate;
a plurality of capacitors that separate the microstrip line into a plurality of line parts and connect mutually adjacent line parts of the plurality of separated line parts;
a plurality of short-circuit stub conductors that connect the line parts to the ground conductor; and
a controller for forming a main beam that uses a leaky wave leaked from a transmission line as a radiation wave, by inputting a microwave signal to at least one of one end and another end of the transmission line, making the transmission line operate as one of a forward wave transmission line and a backward wave transmission line at a predetermined operating frequency, and controlling at least one of an amplitude and a phase of the inputted microwave signal with utilizing nonreciprocal characteristic of the transmission line.
[claim11]
11. The transmission line antenna apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the substrate further includes a dielectric substrate,
wherein the magnetic substrate and the dielectric substrate are combined integrally together by their side surfaces at a boundary portion, and
wherein the dielectric substrate further includes a ground conductor on the back surface thereof.
[claim12]
12. The transmission line antenna apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the controller forms the main beam of the radiation wave by inputting the microwave signal to one end and another end of the transmission line and controlling at least one of the amplitude and the phase of the inputted microwave signal.
[claim13]
13. The transmission line antenna apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the controller forms the main beam of the radiation wave by inputting the microwave signal to one end of the transmission line and controlling at least one of the amplitude and the phase of the inputted microwave signal, thereby reflecting a forward wave at another end of the transmission line.
[claim14]
14. The transmission line antenna apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the controller forms the main beam of the radiation wave by inputting the microwave signal to another end of the transmission line and controlling at least one of the amplitude and the phase of the inputted microwave signal, thereby reflecting a backward wave at one end of the transmission line.
[claim15]
15. The transmission line antenna apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the controller forms the main beam of the radiation wave by performing one of inputting the microwave signal to one end of the transmission line and inputting the microwave signal to another end of the transmission line, and controlling at least one of the amplitude and the phase of the inputted microwave signal.
  • 発明者/出願人(英語)
  • UEDA TETSUYA
  • JAPAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AGENCY
国際特許分類(IPC)
米国特許分類/主・副
  • 333/236
  • 333/245
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