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Method and apparatus for producing nanostructures, and substrate structure including nanostructures

Foreign code F190009675
File No. 4770
Posted date Jan 22, 2019
Country EPO
Application number 15002952
Gazette No. 3012344
Date of filing Oct 16, 2015
Gazette Date Apr 27, 2016
Priority data
  • P2014-214096 (Oct 21, 2014) JP
Title Method and apparatus for producing nanostructures, and substrate structure including nanostructures
Abstract Provided are a method and an apparatus for producing nanostructures.The method and the apparatus can form the nanostructures having fine dimensions from a wider variety of materials.Also provided is a substrate structure including nanostructures formed from a material that is industrially widely applicable.A method forms a plurality of nanostructures on a flat surface of a substrate.The method includes the step a) of evaporating a main material for the nanostructures onto the flat surface of the substrate.In the step a), the substrate is controlled to have an absolute temperature equal to or lower than 0.25 time the melting point (absolute temperature) of the main material for the nanostructures.This enables the formation of fine nanostructures having a desired shape from a desired material.
Outline of related art and contending technology BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for producing nanostructures on or over a substrate; and a substrate structure including a substrate and nanostructures disposed on or over the substrate.
Description of Prior Art
Nanostructures (nanoscale structures) include any of metal materials and various organic and inorganic materials and have nanometer-order scale dimensions.Such nanostructures are increasingly examined.The nanostructures differ in properties from corresponding bulk materials, even when including an identical material, and are examined so as to be applied typically to electronic devices.
Known techniques for producing a plurality of nanostructures as a flat plane are exemplified by dynamic oblique deposition, DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal crystallization of colloidal precursors, template-synthesis, molecular beam epitaxy, and reactive pulsed laser deposition, as described by Takayuki Kitamura et al. in "FRACTURE NANOMECHANICS", PAN STANFORD PUBLISHING (2011), ISBN 978-981-4241-83-0.
U.S. Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 20100328896 describes a technique for forming nanosprings by the dynamic oblique deposition, where the nanosprings include copper and have a spring diameter of about ten nanometers to about several micrometers.
Japanese Patent No. 4938365 describes a method for producing a nanoscale three-dimensional structure using carbonaceous dies.Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication (JP-A) No. 2014-101512 describes a technique for producing nanostructures by self-assembly.
Upon production of a plurality of nanostructures as a flat plane, structures to be formed and materials to be used have limitations differing from a production method to another.The dynamic oblique deposition is suitable for self-standing columnar structures that have a helical shape or a zigzag shape, where such columnar structures are hardly producible by production methods using a template or a die.However, conventional techniques using dynamic oblique deposition are limited in usable materials and in dimensions (sizes) of producible nanostructures.Specifically, the materials usable for the production of nanostructures are limited typically to silicon and tantalum oxides.The conventional techniques using dynamic oblique deposition therefore fail to produce nanostructures having fine dimensions in terms typically of a diameter of less than 100 nm from materials that are widely industrially applicable.The materials are exemplified by copper and aluminum.
Scope of claims [claim1]
1. A method for producing nanostructures (36; 71), comprising the step of
a) evaporating a main material for the nanostructures (36; 71) onto a flat surface of a substrate (31) to form a plurality of the nanostructures (36; 71) on or over the flat surface of the substrate (31),
wherein the substrate (31) in the step a) is controlled to have an absolute temperature equal to or lower than 0.25 times a melting point (absolute temperature) of the main material.
[claim2]
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the nanostructures (36; 71) each have a diameter of less than 100 nm.
[claim3]
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein the substrate (31) is rotated in the step a).
[claim4]
4. The method of any preceding claim, comprising the step of
b) evaporating a predetermined material onto the plurality of nanostructures (36; 71) from the step a) so as to form a planar layer (101; 124) on a top of the plurality of nanostructures (36),
wherein the substrate (31) is preferably not rotated in the step b).
[claim5]
5. The method of any preceding claim, comprising the step of
c) evaporating a predetermined material onto the flat surface of the substrate (31) so as to form a substrate surface layer (111) on the flat surface of the substrate (31), the step c) being performed before the step a),
wherein the substrate (31) is preferably not rotated in the step c).
[claim6]
6. An apparatus for producing nanostructures (36; 71), comprising:
a vacuum chamber (1) in which the nanostructures (36; 71) are to be formed;
a crucible (2) in which a material (4) is to be placed, where the crucible (2) is disposed in the vacuum chamber (1);
an electron gun (3) disposed in the vacuum chamber (1), where the electron gun (3) is configured to apply electron beams (5) to the material (4) in the crucible (2) so as to evaporate the material (4);
a stage (7) disposed in the vacuum chamber (1) so as to face the crucible (2), where the stage (7) bears a member on or over which the evaporated material (4) is to be deposited, and where the stage (7) is pivotally supported and is arranged so as to face the crucible (2) at a variable angle;
a cooling unit (8) for cooling the stage (7);
a heating unit (9) for heating the stage (7);
a temperature sensor (10) for detecting a temperature of the stage (7); and
a controller (11) for operating the cooling unit (8) and the heating unit (9) based on the temperature detected by the temperature sensor (10) so as to control the temperature of the stage (7).
[claim7]
7. The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the controller (11) is adapted to control an absolute temperature of the stage (7) so that the absolute temperature is equal to or lower than 0.25 times a melting point (absolute temperature) of the material.
[claim8]
8. The apparatus of claim 6 or 7, wherein the cooling unit (8) is adapted to use liquid nitrogen as a coolant.
[claim9]
9. A nanostructure-containing substrate structure comprising:
a substrate (31) having a flat surface; and
a plurality of nanostructures (36; 71) disposed vertically on or over the flat surface of the substrate (31),
the plurality of nanostructures (36; 71) each having a diameter of less than 100 nm, and
the plurality of nanostructures (36; 71) comprising a main material having a melting point equal to or lower than a melting point of copper.
[claim10]
10. The substrate structure of claim 9, wherein the plurality of nanostructures (36; 71) have at least one shape selected from the group consisting of:
helical shapes;
zigzag shapes;
columnar shapes; and
oblique columnar shapes.
[claim11]
11. The substrate structure of claim 9 or 10, comprising;
a planar layer (101; 124) on a top of the plurality of nanostructures (36); and
optionally a plurality of second nanostructures (36) disposed vertically on or over the planar layer (124).
[claim12]
12. The method of claim 4, or the substrate structure of claim 11, wherein the planar layer (101; 124) is formed by a material identical to the main material constituting the plurality of nanostructures (36).
[claim13]
13. The substrate structure of any of claims 9 to 12, comprising a substrate surface layer (111) disposed between the flat surface of the substrate (31) and the nanostructures (36).
[claim14]
14. The method of claim 5, or the substrate structure of claim 13, wherein the substrate surface layer (111) is formed by a material identical to the main material of the nanostructures (36).
[claim15]
15. The substrate structure of claim 13, wherein the substrate surface layer (111) comprises a material different from the main material constituting the nanostructures (36).
  • Applicant
  • Hitachi, Ltd.
  • KYOTO UNIVERSITY
  • Inventor
  • Tanie, Hisashi
  • Sumigawa, Takashi
  • Kitamura, Takayuki
IPC(International Patent Classification)
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