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(In Japanese)細胞の形態形成を決定する分子機構の研究 -細胞の形作り:動と静-

Research report code R013000017
Posted date Oct 1, 2003
  • (In Japanese)大矢 禎一
  • (In Japanese)東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科先端生命科学専攻
Research organization
  • (In Japanese)東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科先端生命科学専攻
Report name (In Japanese)細胞の形態形成を決定する分子機構の研究 -細胞の形作り:動と静-
Technology summary (In Japanese)細胞の形態は細胞骨格の空間的配置に加え,菌類や植物では細胞壁の合成パターンと性状により決定される。近年,細胞骨格の構築と運動過程の分子レベルの理解が飛躍的に行われたが,細胞壁の合成制御機構と形態形成の決定機構については十分な解析が行われなかった。我々は出芽酵母の出芽過程をモデル系として,遺伝子学的及び細胞生物学的手法を用いて細胞壁形成の分子機構の解明を目指した。その結果,細胞壁合成酵素がダイナミックに細胞膜上を移動することを発見した(図1)。細胞壁合成酵素はアクチンの重合と連動して出芽部分の細胞膜上を移動し,移動できなくなると形が異常な細胞壁が形成される(図2)。さらに細胞壁合成酵素の上流で働く制御因子として,既に我々は低分子量GTPaseであるRholpを明らかにしていたが,新たなRholp修飾酵素,スフィンゴ脂質,膜内存在のタンパク質等が合成酵素の活性調節に直接関与することを明らかにした(図3)。

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Research field
  • Microscopic methods of living organisms
  • Biological function
  • Molecular genetics in general
  • Cell components in general
  • Biomembrane in general
Published papers related (In Japanese)(1) Kondoli, 0., Tachibana, Y., Ohya, Y., Arisawa, M., and Watanabe, T. (1997) Cloning of theRHOI gene from Candida albicans and its regulation of β-1 ,3-glucan synthesis. J. Bacteriol.179:7734-7741.
(2) Caplin B.E., Ohya, Y., Marshall, M.S. (1998) Amino Acid Residues That Define Both theIsoprenoid and CAAX Preferences of the Saccharomyces cerevisiac ProteinFamesyltransferase. Creating the perfect farnesyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 9472-9479.
(3) Homma, K., Terui, S., Minemura, M., Qadota, H., Anraku, Y., Kanaho, Y., Ohya, Y. (1998) Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Localized on the Plasma Membrane Is Essential forYeast Cell Morphogenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 15779-15786.
(4) Sekiya, -K. M., Botstein, D., Ohya, Y., (1998) Identification of Functional Connections between Calmodulin and the Yeast Actin Cytoskeleton. Genetics 150: 43-58
(5) Okano, H., Cyert, M., Ohya, Y., (1998) Importance of Phenylalanine Residues of Yeast Calmodulin for Target Binding and Activation. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 26375-26382.
(6) Helliwell, S.B., Schmidt, A., Ohya, Y., Hall, M.N. (1988) The Rhol effector Pkcl, but not Bni1, mediates signalling from Tor2 to the actin cytoskeleton. Curr. Biol. 5:1211-1214.
(7) Inoue, S. B., Qadota, H., Arisawa, M., Watanabe, T., and Ohya, Y. (1999) Prenylation of Rho1p Is Required for Activation of Yeast 1,3-β-Glucan Synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 274:38119-38124.
(8) Kikyo, M, Tanaka, K., Kamei, T., Ozaki, K., Fujiwara, T., Inoue, B., Takita, Y., Ohya, Y., and Takai, Y. (1999) An FH Domain-Containing Bnr1p Is a Multifunctional Protein Interactingwith a Variety of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oncogene 18: 7046-7054.
(9) McEwen, R.K., Dove, S. K., Cooke, F. T., Painter, G. F., Holmes, A. B., Shisheva, A., Ohya, Y., Parker, P. J., and Michel, R. H. (1999) Complementation Analysis in PtdlnsP Kinase-Deficient Yeast Mutants Demonstrates that Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Murine Fab 1p Homologues Are Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate 5-Kinases. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 33905-33912.
(10) Abe, M., Nishida, I, Minemura, M., Qadota, H., Seyama, Y., Watanabe, T., and Ohya, Y. (2001) Yeast 1,3-β-Glucan Synthase Activity Is Inhibited by Phytosphingosine Localized to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 26923-26930.
(11) Harrison, J.C., Bardes, E.S., Ohya, Y., Lew, D.J. (2001) A role for the Pkc1p/Mpklp kinase cascade in the morphogenesis checkpoint. Nat. Cell. Biol. 3: 417-420.
(12) Saka, A., Abe, M., Minemura, M., Qadota, H., Utsugi, T., and Ohya, Y. (2001) Complementing Yeast rhol Mutation Groups with Distinct Functional Defects. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 46165-46171.
(13) Watanabe, D., Abe, M., and Ohya, Y. (2001) Yeast Lrg1p Acts as a Specialized RhoGAP Regulating 1,3-β-Glucan Synthesis. Yeast 18: 943-951.
(14) Utsugi, T., Sekiya, -K. M., Abe, M.Minemura, M., and Ohya, Y. (2002) Movement of yeast 1,3-β-glucan synthase on the surface of the plasma membrane. Gene to Cells 7:1-9.
(15) Sekiya, -K. M., Abe, M., Saka, A., Watanabe, D., Kono, K., Minemura, M., Watanabe, T., and Ohya, Y. (2002) Dissection of Upstream Regulatory Components of the Rho1p Effector, 1,3-β-Glucan Synthase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 162:663-76
Research project
  • Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology.;Unit Process and Combined Circuit
Information research report
  • (In Japanese)大矢 禎一. 細胞の形態形成を決定する分子機構の研究 細胞の形作り:動と静. 「さきがけ研究21」「素過程と連携」領域 講演要旨集(研究期間1997-2000),2000. p.27 - 38.