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極限環境状態における現象 極限ストレス土壌における植物の耐性戦略

研究報告コード R990004280
掲載日 2001年2月6日
  • 森 敏
  • 東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科
  • 東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科
報告名称 極限環境状態における現象 極限ストレス土壌における植物の耐性戦略
報告概要 石灰質アルカリ土壌中の不溶性Feを可溶化できるオオムギの鉄欠乏症回避能を導入した耐性イネの作出および各種の植物におけるAl元素に対する耐性獲得機構の研究を行った。Feを可溶化するムギネ酸の複雑な生合成経路を解明し,その大量生合成に必要な酵素の遺伝子群を単離した。この遺伝子をイネに導入して,鉄欠乏耐性イネの作出に世界で初めて成功した。図1と図2に見られるように,この形質転換イネは石灰質アルカリ土壌においても驚異的な成長を示した。今後,イネの優良品種の開発や多種作物への導入を進める計画である。また,Al抵抗性を示すソバの耐性機構やタバコ培養細胞のAlとFeによる増殖阻害機構を解明した。デファレンシャルスクリーニング法を用いて,11個のAlストレス誘導性遺伝子を単離し,これを酵母に導入して,Al耐性クローンと思われる遺伝子を選抜した。Al処理したオオムギの根を観察し,根の伸長停止とカロースの産生を確認した。

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  • 物質の代謝
  • 作物の品種改良
  • 遺伝子操作
  • 稲作
  • 植物に対する影響
関連発表論文 (1)Suzuki K, Itai R, Suzuki K, Nakanishi H, Nishizawa NK, Yoshimura E, Mori S: Formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of anaerobic metabolism, is induced by iron deficiency in barley roots. Plant Physiol. 116,725-732 (1998)
(2)Kanazawa K, Higuchi K, Nakanishi H, Nishizawa NK, Mori S: Characterizing nicotianamine aminotransferase: Improving its assay system and details of the regulation of its activity by Fe nutrition status. Soil Sci Plant Nutri 44, 717-721 (1998)
(3)Masaoka Y, Chino M, Mori S: Amino acid sequence of proteins induced in Fe-deficient stressed Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 44, 453-458 (1998)
(4)Mori S: Iron transport in graminaceous plants. in Metal Ions in Biological Systems. ed. by Sigel A and Sigel H. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, Basel, Hong Kong 215-238
(5)Yoshimura E, Kitai K, Nishizawa NK, Satake K, Mori S and Yamazaki S: Accumulation of metals and cellular distribution of Aluminum in the livewort Scapania undulata in acidic and neutral streams in Japan. J. Environ Sci Health A33, 671-680 (1998)
(6)森 敏 植物資源と人間 「土と食糧」所収 日本土壌肥料学会編 朝倉書店 1998年
(7)Higuchi K, Suzuki K, Nakanishi H, Yamaguchi H, Nishizawa NK, Mori S: Cloning of nicotianamine synthase genes, novel genes involved in the biosysnthesis of phytosiderophores. Plant Physiol. 119, 471-479 (1999)
(8)Nakanishi H, Bughio N, Matsuhashi S, Ishioka NS, Uchida H, Tsuji A, Osa A, Sekine T, Kume T, Mori S: Visualizing real time [11C]methionine translocation in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley using a positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). J Exp Bot 50, 637-643 (1999)
(9)Kanazawa K, Higuchi K, Nakanishi H, Nishizawa N K, Mori S: Characterization of nicotianamine aminotransferase: Improvement of its assay system and the details of regulation of its activity by Fe nutrition status. Soil Sci and Plant Nutri 44,717-721(1998)
(10)Higuchi K., Nakanishi H., Suzuki K., Nishizawa N. K. Mori S. Presence of nicotianamine synthase isozymes and their homologues in the root of graminaceous plants. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 45(3): 681-691.
(11)Kaneko M., Yoshimura E., Nishizawa N. K., Mori S. Time course study of aluminum-induced callose formation in barley roots as observed by digital microscopy and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 45(3): 701-712.
(12)Lin, S.-J., Wakagi, T., Matsuzawa, H., Yoshimura,E. J. Lanthanum binding to aqualysin I, a thermostable serine protease, as probed by Lanthanum-139 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Inorganic Biochem. 77, 205-208.
(13)Lin S. J., Yoshimura E., Sakai H., Wakagi T., Matsuzawa H. Weakly bound calcium ions involved in the thermostability of aqualysin I, a heat-stable subtilisin-type protease of Thermus aquaticus YT-1. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1433: 132-138.
(14)Mori S. Iron acquisition by plants. Current opinion of Plant Biology 2: 250-253.
(15)Oki H., Yamaguchi H., Nakanishi H., Mori S. Introduction of the reconstructed yeast ferric reductase gene, refre1, into tobacco. Plant and Soil 215(5): 211-220.
(16)Sakaguchi T., Nishizawa N. K. Nakanishi H., Yoshimura E., Mori S. The role of potassium in the secretion of mugineic acids family phytosiderophores from iron-deficient barley roots. Plant and Soil 215(2): 221-227.
(17)Suzuki K., Higuchi K., Nakanishi H., Nishizawa N. K., Mori S. Cloning of nicotianamine synthase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 45(4): 993-1002.
(18)Takahashi M., Yamaguchi H., Naknanishi H., Shioiri T., Nishizawa N. K., Mori S. Cloning two genes for nicotianamine aminotransferase, a critical enzyme in iron acquisition (Strategy II) in graminaceous plants. Plant Physiology 121: 947-956.
(19)Yoshimura E., Nagasaka S., Sato Y., Satake K., Mori S. Extraordinary high aluminium tolerance of the acidophilic thermophilic alga, Cyanidium caldarium. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 45(3): 721-724.
(20)Itai R., Suzuki K., Yamaguchi H., Nakanishi H., Nishizawa N. K., Yoshimura E., Mori S. Induced activity of adnenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) in iron-deficient barley roots. A possible role of adenine salvage in the methionine cycle in phytosiderophore production. Journal of Experimental Botany (in press)
(21)Singh K., Sasakuma T., Bughio N., Takahashi M., Nakanishi H., Yoshimura E., Nishizawa N. K. Mori S. Ability of ancestral wheat species to secrete MAs in response to Fe deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition (in press)
(22)Singh K., Yoshimura E., Bughio N., Kanazawa S., Mori S. Assessment of the role of root-exudated organic acids in Al resistance in acid soils under field culture conditions. (submitted)
(23)Yamaguchi H., Nakanishi H., Nishizawa N. K., Mori S. Induction of the IDI1 gene in Fe-deficient barley roots: a gene encoding a putative enzyme that catalyses the methionine salvage pathway for phytosiderophore production. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 46(1): 1-9.
(24)Yoshimura E., Kobayashi R., Furihata K., Kajiwara H., Yamazaki S. 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignment of phytochelatin. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry 38: 141-142.
(25)Yoshimura E., Nagasaka S., Satake K., Mori S. Mechanism of aluminium tolerance in Cyanidium caldarium. Hydrobiologia (in press)
(26)Yoshimura E., Sakaguchi T., Nakanishi H., Nishizawa N. K., Nakai I., Mori S. Characterization of the chemical state of iron in the leaves of wild-type tomato and nicotianamine-free mutant chloronerva by X-ray absorption near-edge structure(XANES). Phytochemical Analysis 11(3): 160-162.
(27)Yoshimura E., Sato N., Nishizawa N.K., Satake K., Mori S. Accumulation of metals in the cell walls of the liverwort, Scapania undulata. J. Environ. Sci. Health (in press).
  • 戦略的基礎研究推進事業、研究領域「極限環境状態における現象」研究代表者 森 敏(東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科)/科学技術振興事業団
  • 森 敏. 極限環境状態における現象 極限ストレス土壌における植物の耐性戦略. 戦略的基礎研究推進事業 平成10年度 研究年報,1999. p.454 - 459.